Spatio-temporal Assessment of Drought Impacts on the Agricultural Activities in Basrah Governorate, Iraq Using Remote Sensing Technique

Raheem Attafi, Ali Darvishi Boloorani, Ayad M. Fadhil Al-Quraishi and Farshad Amiraslani

Drought refers toa complex natural disaster that causes serious environmental, social, and economic impacts worldwide. The impacts of drought can be modeled by some factors such as precipitation, temperature, groundwater level, surface water status, and vegetation conditions. The relationship between rainfall and vegetation indices was analyzed to identify drought-vulnerable areas in Basrah Governorate of Iraq using Landsat-based spectral indices. Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images acquired in 1993, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2007, 2016, in addition to remote sensing and GIS techniques were utilized for investigation drought impacts on the agricultural activities in Basrah Governorate, south of Iraq. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI2), and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) were employed for this study. The results revealed a decline in the Wheat and Barley yields in the drought years 2007 and 2016, whereas decreased by 21.1% and 9.1% for the aforementioned crops, respectively. The statistical analyses for the study results showed a significant positive correlation between each of NDVI and the rainfall (r=0.75), and NDVI and the rainfall was (r=0.90) for drought years of 2007 and 2016, respectively. The study findings show an extreme drought in the Basrah region in 1993, 2000, 2007 and 2016. From this study, it can be concluded that Basrah Governorate is highly prone to drought affecting the agricultural productivity and livestock maintenance; in addition, remote sensing can playsa vital role in addressing drought impacts on the agricultural activities.

Volume 11 | 07-Special Issue

Pages: 174-184