Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of a set of tiny sensor nodes which continuously sense and transmit the data. WSNs has limited lifetime as they have a wireless nature and the most important issue is the energy conservation of the sensor nodes. One of the challenging issues is to reduce the sensors energy consumption. A solution for this is energy efficient routing. Among many clustering techniques, grid based clustering is found more efficient. This paper proposes a Modified Energy-efficient and Load Distributed Clustering Algorithm (MELDCA) for routing in dense wireless sensor networks to decrease and distribute the sensors’ energy consumption. The network is formed by a number of virtual congruent square grids of defined sizes. Finest and load balanced clusters are constructed at every inner crossing point of grid cells using defined cluster fitness value. A major design issue in clustering protocols is the early energy depletion of the nodes. By providing local substitution for energy suffering Cluster Heads (CHs), early energy depletion is delayed by the proposed algorithm. Also crossing point relocation is performed when energy reaches a threshold value, which further prolongs the life time of the network. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is given by simulation results performed under different network scenario. In terms of network lifetime, energy dissemination, and energy utilization the proposed algorithm shows improved performance than the latest routing algorithms.
Volume 11 | 01-Special Issue